Tooth decay is parts of teeth with rot that may progress to small or large holes gradually.

Tooth decay is one of the most common health problems around the world. It is widespread, primarily, among children and adolescents, but every person in his mouth has teeth that may develop cavities. And if tooth decay is not treated, the holes may get bigger and wider, causing severe pain, inflammation, and even tooth loss and other complications.

The signs and symptoms of tooth decay vary, depending on the severity and location of the caries. At the beginning of the tooth decay phase, you may not have any symptoms at all. But as erosion develops and grows in size, symptoms and signs begin to appear:

Toothache, spontaneous sudden pain, or pain that occurs for no apparent reason
Tooth sensitivity
Mild or severe pain while eating or drinking something sweet, cold, or hot
Clear holes or holes in the teeth
Brown, black or white spots on any surface of the teeth
Pain when eating food

Causes and risk factors for tooth decay

Caries, which is also called tooth decay, occurs due to several causes and factors combined together, including:

Unclean teeth
Not taking care of dental hygiene
Have sweets and drinks containing sugar
The oral cavity, like other parts of the body, contains many different types of germs. Some of these bacteria grow and multiply in an environment of different foods or drinks that contain cooked sugars or starches, also known as fermented carbohydrates (Fermentedcarbohydrates).

When these carbohydrates are not removed by cleaning (rubbing) the teeth, the germs convert them into acids, within 20 minutes. Germs, acids, food and saliva molecules transform into Dentalplaque, a sticky layer covering the teeth.

When applying the tongue to the teeth, this dental plaque can be detected, just a few hours after brushing the teeth. The dental plaque is somewhat rough in the area of ​​the milled tooth (or: molars), especially along the gum line.

The acids that form in the dental plaque attack the minerals in the solid layer of the tooth, called "Enamel", the outer layer that covers the tooth.

The erosion of the "enamel" layer of the tooth causes small holes in it - tooth decay.

In the event that parts of the enamel layer are eroded, germs and acids become able to reach the second layer of tooth, called "ivory" (the middle layer of the tooth - Dentine). This layer is softer and less resistant to acids than the "enamel" layer.

When the tooth decay process reaches this point, the frequency and speed of tooth decay increases gradually. As this continues, germs and acids progress on their way to the layers that make up the tooth. It progresses into the layer of the dental pulp, which is the inner layer of the tooth, which causes it to swell and irritate.

Tooth decay may also affect the bone that supports the tooth. In the very advanced stages of caries, the person suffers from severe pain, excessive sensitivity in the nibble and other symptoms.

Also, the body may respond to such bacterial penetration inside it by sending white blood cells to fight emerging inflammation.

As a result, abscess may form in the teeth. The process of rotting tooth, this, time and time is short.

As the layers of the tooth continue to erode, one after the other, as a result of decay, this process will accelerate more and more. Often, the caries begins in the posterior mills (molars / molars) area, since they have more openings, gaps and zigzags than other teeth.

Although this structure helps a lot in chewing food, it also creates an excellent place to accumulate leftovers. Also, cleaning these molars is more difficult than cleaning the front teeth, which are more in contact and easy to reach.

As a result, dental plaque forms more easily and quickly in crushing molars, where germs grow, produce acids and, in turn, eliminate the "enamel" layer.

Risk factors
Everyone who has teeth is at risk of developing dental cavities, but the risk can increase due to the following factors:

Dental site. Tooth decay often occurs in posterior teeth (mills and premolars). These teeth have many cavities, pits and cracks in which food particles can accumulate. As a result, it is harder to keep clean than hard-to-reach front teeth.
Certain drinks and foods. Foods that stick to teeth for a long time - such as milk, ice cream, honey, sugar, soft drinks, dried fruits, cakes, biscuits, hard candy, mint candy, dry cereal and potato chips - are more likely to cause caries than foods that saliva can easily clean.
Eat snacks or drinks frequently. When you eat snacks or sugary drinks a lot, you give mouth bacteria more energy to secrete acids that attack and erode the teeth. Drinking soft drinks or other acidic drinks throughout the day also helps to produce acid that continuously covers the teeth.
Feeding babies during sleep. When children are given bedtime bottles filled with milk, nutritional formula, juice, or other sugar-containing liquids, these drinks remain on their teeth for hours during sleep, making them a source of nourishment for the corrosive bacteria. This damage is often called tooth decay caused by the feeding bottle. Similar harm can occur when children roam and drink from a sip cup filled with these drinks frequently.
Inappropriately brushing teeth. If you don't brush your teeth right after eating and drinking, the plaque forms quickly and the first stage of caries can begin.
Not getting enough fluoride. Fluoride, a natural mineral, helps prevent tooth decay and may also be able to reverse the early stages of tooth damage. Because of its dental benefits, fluoride is added to many public water sources. It is also a common ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. But bottled water usually does not contain fluoride.
Younger or older age. In the United States, tooth decay is common in young children and teenagers. The elderly are also at a higher risk of infection. Over time, the teeth may wear off and the gums recede, making the teeth more susceptible to root decay. Also, the elderly may take many medications that reduce the flow of saliva, which increases the risk of tooth decay.
Dry mouth. Dry mouth is caused by a lack of saliva, which helps prevent tooth decay by cleaning teeth from foods and plaques. The substances in saliva also help counteract the acids produced by bacteria. Certain medications, medical conditions, or radiation exposure to the head or neck, or some chemotherapy drugs, can increase the risk of developing cavities by reducing salivation.
Erosion of fillings or dental devices. Over the years, dental fillings can weaken and begin to degrade or lead to rough edges. This allows the plaque to accumulate more easily and get harder to remove. Compound dental devices can become permeated or inappropriate well, allowing decay to begin beneath them.
Heartburn. Heartburn or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease can cause stomach acid to flow into the mouth (reflux), erosion of the tooth enamel, and major damage to the teeth. This exposes more ivory to bacteria attacks, causing tooth decay. Your dentist may recommend consulting your doctor to find out if gastric reflux is the cause of your enamel loss.
Eating disorders. Anorexia and bulimia can lead to significant erosion of the teeth and the appearance of cavities. The stomach acid from the repeated vomiting also covers the teeth and the enamel begins to dissolve. Eating disorders can also interfere with salivation.

Complications of tooth decay
Tooth decay is so widespread that many people do not treat it with the appropriate seriousness. It is common, for example, not to care about developing dental caries in children. However, tooth decay may lead to serious and far-reaching complications and complications, even in children whose fixed teeth have not yet germinated.

Among these complications are:

Abscess in the teeth
Teeth fracture
Chewing problems
Severe infections
In addition, when tooth decay reaches a stage where the pain is very acute, this may hinder the practice of daily life naturally, to the point of preventing the student from leaving his school or the worker to work.

But if the pain is severe and hinders the process of eating or chewing, it may lead to malnutrition and then a loss in weight.

If caries leads to tooth loss, this may negatively affect self-confidence. In some very rare cases, abscess formed due to tooth decay may lead to severe contamination, which may pose a risk to the life of the patient if not treated properly.

Oral and dental hygiene can help prevent cavities and caries. Here are some tips to help prevent tooth decay. And consult a dentist about the best advice for you.

Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste after eating or drinking. Brush your teeth at least twice a day, especially after every meal, using fluoride toothpaste. For cleaning between your teeth, use dental floss or an interdental cleaner.
Wash your mouth. If your dentist believes that you are at risk of developing cavities, it may be recommended to use a mouthwash with fluoride.
Visit the dentist regularly. Do professional dental cleaning and regular checks on the mouth, which may help you prevent or detect problems early, and your doctor can recommend appropriate appointments for you.
Try using a dental seal. The sealing seal is a protective plastic coating that is applied to the chewing surface of the back teeth. It closes cavities and cracks that tend to collect food, and protect tooth enamel from plaque and sour. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends sealing seals for all school-age children. Seal seals may last for several years before they are replaced, but they must be checked regularly.
Drink tap water. Most public water supplies have added fluoride, which can help reduce tooth decay dramatically. If you only drink bottled water that does not contain fluoride, you will deny yourself the benefits of fluoride.
Avoid snacks or drinks frequently. Whenever you eat food or drink other than water, you help mouth bacteria secrete acids that can destroy tooth enamel. And if you drink snacks or drinks throughout the day, your teeth will be at constant risk.
Eat foods that keep teeth healthy. There are some foods and drinks that are better for your teeth than others. Avoid eating foods that stick to your dental grooves and cavities for long periods, such as potato chips, candy, or biscuits, or wash your teeth quickly after eating them. However, foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables, can increase the flow of saliva; while unsweetened coffee, unsweetened tea, and sugar-free chewing gum clean up food particles.
Try fluoride treatments. Your dentist may recommend periodic fluoride treatments, especially if you don't get enough of it through drinking water and other fluoride-containing sources. It may also be recommended for customized dental panels to fit the prescribed fluoride if your risk of tooth decay is very high.
Ask about antibacterial treatments. If you are particularly susceptible to tooth decay - such as a medical condition - your dentist may recommend a special antibacterial mouthwash or other treatments to help reduce harmful bacteria in the mouth.
Combined treatments. Xylitol-chewing gum can be chewed along with prescription fluoride and an anti-bacterial wash can help reduce the risk of tooth decay.

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